日期:2022-01-12 00:51:01 | 人气: 95751

龙虎和|你和你的好朋友有无数共同点,连脑电波都相似 本文摘要:A friend will help you move, goes an old saying, while a good friend will help you move a body. And why not? Moral qualms aside, that good friend would most likely agree the victim was an intolerable jerk who had it coming and, jeez, you shouldn’t have done this but where do you keep the shovel?有句俗话说道,盆友愿为大哥你搬去,而最好的朋友愿为大哥你搬至遗体。

A friend will help you move, goes an old saying, while a good friend will help you move a body. And why not? Moral qualms aside, that good friend would most likely agree the victim was an intolerable jerk who had it coming and, jeez, you shouldn’t have done this but where do you keep the shovel?有句俗话说道,盆友愿为大哥你搬去,而最好的朋友愿为大哥你搬至遗体。为什么会不肯呢?撇掉社会道德层面的顾虑不说道,这名最好的朋友也很有可能强调这一受害人是个让人难以容忍的浑蛋,咎由自取,那麼,天哪,你没应那么保证的,但是你将铁锹敲哪了?New research suggests the roots of friendship extend even deeper than previously suspected. Scientists have found that the brains of close friends respond in remarkably similar ways as they view a series of short videos: the same ebbs and swells of attention and distraction, the same peaking of reward processing here, boredom alerts there.新的研究强调,友谊的基石比大家庞加莱的也要浅。专家寻找,亲密接触的盆友在欣赏一系列短片视频时,她们的人的大脑不容易以十分相仿的方法采取行动:专注力的集中化于与集中化具备完全一致的固定翼,沉稳经常会出现完全一致的奖赏反映高峰期,沉稳又有完全一致的厌倦警示。

The neural response patterns evoked by the videos — on subjects as diverse as the dangers of college football, the behavior of water in outer space, and Liam Neeson trying his hand at improv comedy — proved so congruent among friends, compared with patterns seen among people who were not friends, that the researchers could predict the strength of two people’s social bond based on their brain scans alone.视頻的內容各种各样,有高校足球队的危险因素、外星球里水的特点、连姆·尼森(Liam Neeson)试着即兴表演喜剧片表演。与并不是盆友的人相比,视頻在朋友之间造成的神经系统反映方式是这般的完全一致,以致于研究工作人员乃至能够仅凭2个人脑扫瞄推测有她们人际关系的长幼尊卑。

“I was struck by the exceptional magnitude of similarity among friends,” said Carolyn Parkinson, a cognitive scientist at the University of California, Los Angeles. The results “were more persuasive than I would have thought.” Parkinson and her colleagues, Thalia Wheatley and Adam M. Kleinbaum of Dartmouth College, reported their results in Nature Communications.“朋友之间这类相仿水平要我气愤,”加州大学洛杉矶分校(University of California, Los Angeles)的了解学者卡洛琳·帕金森(Carolyn Parkinson)说道。結果“比我构想的更为有感染力”。帕金森和来源于达特茅斯学校(Dartmouth College)的朋友塔利娅·惠特利(Thalia Wheatley)、亞當·M·克莱伯恩(Adam M. Kleinbaum)在《大自然通讯》(Nature Communications)上汇报了她们的研究結果。

“I think it’s an incredibly ingenious paper,” said Nicholas Christakis, author of “Connected: The Power of Our Social Networks and How They Shape Our World” and a biosociologist at Yale University. “It suggests that friends resemble each other not just superficially, but in the very structures of their brains.”“我强调它是一篇十分有原创性的毕业论文,”耶鲁大学微生物教育学家、《网络——社会网络的力量以及它如何转变了我们的世界》(Connected: The Power of Our Social Networks and How They Shape Our World)一书的创作者古乐朋(Nicholas Christakis)说道。“这强调,朋友之间的相互相仿不只在表层,还不会有于她们的大脑的结构中。


”The findings offer tantalizing evidence for the vague sense we have that friendship is more than shared interests or checking off the right boxes on a Facebook profile. It’s about something we call good chemistry.大家必须隐隐约约觉得到,友谊不只是具有协同的兴趣爱好或者在Facebook个人信息中启用过是多少适度的选择项。她们的调查报告得到了大家期待的证实。这与大家常说的“化学变化”相关。

“Our results suggest that friends might be similar in how they pay attention to and process the world around them,” Parkinson said. “That shared processing could make people click more easily and have the sort of seamless social interaction that can feel so rewarding.”“大家的研究结果显示,盆友在怎样瞩目和处理周边全球的层面有可能是相仿的,”帕金森说道。“这类协同的处理方法不容易令人更非常容易沦落盆友,具有让人倍感合乎的、相互不同寻常的人际交往。

”Kevin N. Ochsner, a cognitive neuroscientist at Columbia University who studies social networks, said the new report is “cool,” “provocative” and “raises more questions than it answers.” It could well be picking up traces of “an ineffable shared reality” between friends.宾夕法尼亚大学(Columbia University)研究社交媒体的了解神经学家阿隆·N·奥克斯空调纳(Kevin N. Ochsner)称作,这一份新的研究“非常好”、“激动人心”,且“明确指出的难题低于问”。此项研究很有可能找到朋友之间“难以言喻的总共实际”的足迹。

Ochsner offered his own story as evidence of the primacy of chemistry over mere biography. “My wife-to-be and I were both neuroscientists in the field, we were on dating websites, but we were never matched up,” he said.奥克斯空调纳讲出了自身的小故事,以证实化学变化败给至少一份个人传记。“我与女友全是这一行业的神经系统生物学家,大家都再用约会网站,但不曾被给出在一起,”他说道。“Then we happened to meet as colleagues and in two minutes we knew we had the kind of chemistry that breeds a relationship.”“随后大家不经意以朋友真实身份遇上,出不来有2分钟大家就告知,大家有一种能培养出来有一段情感的心有灵犀。”Parkinson — who is 31, wears large horn-rimmed glasses and has the wholesome look of a young Sally Field — described herself as introverted but said, “I’ve been fortunate with my friends.”31岁的帕金森戴着极大地角质层近视眼镜,有一种沙莉·芒特(Sally Field)年青时的青春活力。

她形容自己不爱说话,但也说道“很碰巧能具有我的好朋友”。The new study is part of a surge of scientific interest in the nature, structure and evolution of friendship. Behind the enthusiasm is a virtual Kilimanjaro of demographic evidence that friendlessness can be poisonous, exacting a physical and emotional toll comparable to that of more familiar risk factors like obesity, high blood pressure, unemployment, lack of exercise, smoking cigarettes.近期科学研究对友谊的特性、构造和演变全过程的兴趣爱好猛增,本次研究就科其一。在这类激情身后,很多人口数量应用统计学数据信息证实缺乏友谊有可能是伤害的,造成 的人体和感情危害媲美增加体重、血压高、下岗、缺乏磨炼、烟民等大家更为了解的风险因素。Scientists want to know what, exactly, makes friendship so healthy and social isolation so harmful, and they’re gathering provocative, if not yet definitive, clues.专家想告知,到底是啥让友谊这般有益身体健康,而社会发展无依无靠又这般 伤害,而她们已经收集的尽管并不是关键性案件线索,但也令人激动。

Christakis and his co-workers recently demonstrated that people with strong social ties had comparatively low concentrations of fibrinogen, a protein associated with the kind of chronic inflammation thought to be the source of many diseases. Why sociability might help block inflammation remains unclear.古乐朋和同事前不久证实,社会发展联络强悍的人具备较为较低的纤维蛋白原浓度值,它是一种与炎症相关的蛋白,一般来说被看作很多病症来源于。为何人际交往能力能劝阻发炎现阶段行远必自不准确。Parkinson and her co-workers previously had shown that people are keenly and automatically aware of how all the players in their social sphere fit together, and the scientists wanted to know why some players in a given network are close friends and others mere nodding acquaintances.帕金森和她的朋友先前曾一度证实,大家对自身社交媒体行业的全部参加者怎样相互配合具备灵巧而心理状态的观念,而专家要想告知,为何在一个明确的社交网络中,一些人会沦落亲密接触朋友,而另一些人仅仅一面之交。Inspired by the research of Uri Hasson of Princeton, they decided to explore subjects’ neural reactions to everyday, naturalistic stimuli — which these days means watching videos.不会受到普林斯顿大学尤里·哈森(Uri Hasson)的研究设计灵感,专家规定研究试验目标在平时自然界性兴奋下的神经反映——如今这意味著欣赏视頻。


The researchers started with a defined social network: an entire class of 279 graduate students at an unnamed university widely known among neuroscientists to have been Dartmouth’s school of business.研究工作人员从一个明确社交网络干掉:一所仍未透露校名的高校内的某一届研究生,共279人。神经学者普遍告知是达特茅斯的国际商学院。The students, who all knew one another and in many cases lived in dorms together, were asked to fill out questionnaires. Which of their fellow students did they socialize with — share meals and go to a movie with, invite into their homes? From that survey the researchers mapped out a social network of varying degrees of connectivity: friends, friends of friends, third-degree friends, friends of Kevin Bacon.这种学员都相互之间掌握,一些还同居生活一个寝室,她们被拒绝填入了问卷调查。她们与什么同学们感情——一起睡觉、看电视剧,或者邀回家了?依据调研,研究工作人员绘图出拥有相接水平各有不同的社交网络:盆友、好友、三度盆友,阿隆·贝肯(Kevin Bacon)的盆友。

The students were then asked to participate in a brain scanning study and 42 agreed. As an fMRI device tracked blood flow in their brains, the students watched a series of video clips of varying lengths, an experience that Parkinson likened to channel surfing with somebody else in control of the remote.接着,学员被邀参与头部扫瞄研究,在其中42人完全同意参加。在学员欣赏一系列长短不一的视频短片的另外,一台fMRI机器设备不容易追踪她们人的大脑的血夜流动性状况。帕金森将这一感受比成与操控控制器的另一个人一起寻找电视节目。

Analyzing the scans of the students, Parkinson and her colleagues found strong concordance between blood flow patterns — a measure of neural activity — and the degree of friendship among the various participants, even after controlling for other factors that might explain similarities in neural responses, like ethnicity, religion or family income.根据对学员扫瞄的剖析,帕金森和同事们寻找,血夜流动性的模式——神经主题活动的一种在于方法——与各有不同参加者中间的友情水平不会有高宽比一致性,乃至在操控了人种、宗教信仰或家庭年收入等别的能够表明神经反映相似度的要素后依然这般。The researchers identified particularly revealing regions of pattern concordance among friends, notably in the nucleus accumbens, in the lower forebrain, which is key to reward processing, and in the superior parietal lobule, located toward the top and the back of the brain — roughly at the position of a man bun — where the brain decides how to allocate attention to the external environment.研究工作人员找到这些特别是在能说明盆友间模式一致性的地区,尤其是在是下前脑部门管理奖赏处理的伏隔核,及其位于人的大脑顶端和后侧的顶部小葉——大概就在男士丸子头的方向——这一地区规定人的大脑怎样分派对外界自然环境的专注力。

Using the results, the researchers were able to train a computer algorithm to predict, at a rate well above chance, the social distance between two people based on the relative similarity of their neural response patterns.运用这种結果,研究工作人员必须根据算法设计依据两人的神经反映模式的较为相仿度来预测分析她们的社交媒体关联亲密接触水平。Parkinson emphasized that the study was a “first pass, a proof of concept,” and that she and her colleagues still don’t know what the neural response patterns mean: what attitudes, opinions, impulses or mental thumb-twiddling the scans may be detecting.帕金森着重强调,此项研究是“第一关,它证实了一个定义”,她和同事们依然不告知神经反映模式的含意:扫瞄能够观察到什么心态、建议、不理智或神经主题活动。

They plan next to try the experiment in reverse: to scan incoming students who don’t yet know one another and see whether those with the most congruent neural patterns end up becoming good friends.接下去,她们想进行忽视的实验:扫瞄这些相互之间还不掌握的新生儿,想起这些神经模式最完全一致的学员最终否不容易沦落最好的朋友。